Impact of on – site sanitation on groundwater quality

Authors :  Rashmi H. R. , Dr G. P. Shivashankara , Dr. Umadevi B.

Abstract

Water is life; Sanitation is way of life. “Sanitation” refers to all conditions that affect health, especially with regard to dirt and infection and specifically to the drainage and disposal of sewage and refuse from houses. On-site sanitation systems dispose of human excreta, with or without treatment, on the residents’ housing plot. Examples include pit latrines and septic tanks with drainage fields. This study reviews the risks to health posed by groundwater contamination from on-site sanitation (particularly latrines). Detailed understanding of groundwater contamination is complicated by a host of factors, broadly grouped into substantial and often unknown variations in subsurface conditions, contaminants, and the mechanisms of their movement. The problem is further complicated by the multiplicity of other pathways by which contaminants may be ingested, the variation in human response to a given dose, and the variety of approaches that may be taken to reduce such risks. Questionnaire was prepared and used to collect technical socio-economic conditions of the owners. After this sampling points are chosen at expected sources of pollution. Details of sanitation and environmental conditions in the study area of Kanakapura town are surveyed. From the analysis of the water sample it is found that the values of the various parameters are exceeding the permissible limit prescribed by BIS in most of the sampling station.
The analysis of the water sample collected from the various bore well reveals that the groundwater is unfit for drinking purpose. The water sample is more polluted in  ANAKAPURA town residential areas because of lack of sanitation problems.

Keywords : On-Site sanitation, Kanakpura, Nitrates, Methaemoglobinaemia, Pollution, Groundwater